Nusantara Science And Technology Proceedings

The cooperation between manufacturers and their suppliers relating to technology development and market information should be inspired to make the availability chain extra transparent and sturdy. For example, Tesla has already begun to partially substitute their NCA batteries with new LFP technologies in some EV fashions that have been placed on the Chinese market by collaborating with the native battery supplier CATL59. Given the regional decision of our knowledge, our outcomes can shed gentle on regional useful resource safety issues and mitigation methods. China is predicted to eat rather more cobalt than any other region in the future, primarily as a end result of its enormously booming domestic EV market and increasing battery manufacturing capacity sooner or later. In 2019, China’s cobalt reserve was solely eighty kt, but it contributed to 67% of the global cobalt refinery production55, which resulted in its strong dependence on overseas primary cobalt assets.

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